Discovering Psychology 2E,
Hockenbury &Hockenbury, 2000, Worth Publishing




A
abandonment, borderline personality disorder, 494
abnormal behavior, 475
absolute threshold, 84
abuse
   borderline personality disorder, 495
   dissociative identity disorder, 498
   drug, 151
accommodation, 87
acculturative stress, 449
acetylcholine, 49, 49, 50
achievement motivation, 303-5
achievement tests, 260
action potential, 43-45, 45
activation-synthesis model of dreams, 143-44
activity theory of aging, 358-59
actor-observer discrepancy, 415-16, 416
actualizing tendency, 384
acupuncture, 50, 105
   pain and, 101
adaptive theory of sleep, 134
addiction
   alcohol, 153, 520-21
   caffeine, 155
   defined, 150
   nicotine, 155
additive model, 248
Ader, Robert, 452-53, 453
Adler, Alfred, 381, 381, 396
adolescence
   attachment and, 335
   cognitive development, 344
   conformity, 426
   identity formation, 348, 349-50
   moral reasoning, 351-53
   parents and, 347-48, 361
   peers and, 347-48
   physical development in, 346-47
   psychological disorder in, 493-94
   psychological disorders in, 479
   psychosocial stage of development, 349-50
   relationships and, 347-48
   sexual behavior, 347
   sexual development in, 346-47
   social development, 347-48
   suicide and, 506
adolescent growth spurt, 346
adoption studies
   mood disorders, 491-92
   on personality, 395
   schizophrenia, 503, 505
   sexual orientation, 294-95
adrenal cortex, 56
adrenal gland, 56
   sexual motivation and, 291
adrenaline, stress and, 450
adrenal medulla, 56
   fight-or-flight response, 56-57
adultery, 298
adulthood, 325, 353-57
   careers in, 356-57
   friendship in, 354
   marriage, 354-55
   metabolism, 286
   physical changes in, 353-54
   psychological disorders of, 479
   psychosocial stage of development, 349-50
   sleep and, 133
   social development, 354-57
   transition to, 355
advertising, classical conditioning and, 171
afterimage, 92-93
aggression
   Bandura vs Freud on, 390
   in Freudian theory, 371, 373
   observational learning, 194
aging, 356-57
   activity theory of aging, 358-59
   cultural beliefs affect on memory, 233
   dementia and, 233
   environmental factors in, 354
   episodic memory, 233
   metabolism and, 286
   see also late adulthood
agoraphobia, 483
Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter, 334-35
alcohol, 152-53
   addiction, 153, 520-21
   aversive conditioning, 520-21
   behavioral effects of, 153
   binge drinking, 152
   biological effect of, 152-53
   cerebellum and, 64
   cultural differences and, 151
   increasing GABA activity, 49-50
   misuse of, 152
   psychological effects of, 153
   sleep and, 136, 159
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 528
alcohol poisoning, 152
algorithms, 245
Allen, Karen, 462
all-or-none law, 44
Allport, Gordon, 392
alogia, 501
alpha brain waves, 128, 130
Alzheimer's disease, 49
   symptoms of, 233
American Journal of Psychology, 6
American Psychological Association, 6, 169, 478, 531
   ethical guidelines by, 32-33
American Psychological Society, 478
American Sign Language, 252
amnesia, 230-32
   anterograde, 230-32
   dissociative, 496, 496
   retrograde, 230
amniotic sac, 329
amphetamine psychosis, 156
amphetamines, 155-56, 503
amplitude, 94
amygdala, 67, 68-69
   dreams, 143
   memory, 232, 232
   REM sleep, 139
anal sex, 298
analytic intelligence, 264
anandamide, 157
Andersson, Bengt-Erik, 335
anger, physiological pattern for, 309-10
animal cognition, 33, 256
Animal Mind, The (Washburn), 7
animal studies
   behavioral perspective of learning, 165-68, 170-72
   on brain, 77
   code of ethics for, 33
   cognitive perspective on learning, 174-78
   of communication, 255-56
   of emotion, 313
   immune system and stress, 452
   memory, 227-29
   naturalistic observation, 20
   reasons for, 33
anorexia nervosa, 288-89, 479
anosmia, 81-82
Antabuse, 520-21
anterograde amnesia, 230-32
antianxiety medication, 50, 535-36
antidepressant medication, 536-37
antipsychotic medication, 533-35
   atypical, 535
antisocial personality disorder, 493-94
anxiety
   antianxiety medications, 535-36
   basic, 380
   Beck's cognitive therapy, 526
   defined, 480
   escape-avoidance, 466
   exercise and, 465
   in Freudian theory, 374, 377
   rational-emotive therapy, 524
   sleep and, 159
   systematic desensitization, 519-20
   in trait theory, 393
anxiety disorders, 480-84
   panic attacks, 481
   panic disorder, 481-82, 486
   phobias, 482-84, 486
APA, See American Psychological Association
aphasia, 71
aplysia, 228-29
aptitude tests, 260
archetypes, 379-80
Armitage, Peter, 400-401
arousal theory, 301-3
Asch, Solomon, 425-26
Aserinsky, Eugene, 128
association areas, 67
astigmatism, 87
Ativan, 154
atropine, 49
attachment
   borderline personality disorder, 494
   day care and, 334-35
   infants, 332-35
   long-term effect of, 335
   measuring, 334-35
attitudes, 418-21
   components of, 418
   defined, 418
   effect of, on behavior, 418-19
   effect of behavior on, 419-20
attribution, 414-17
   actor-observer discrepancy, 415-16, 416
   cultural differences in, 417
   defined, 414
   fundamental attribution error, 414-15, 416
   self-effacing bias, 416, 417
   self-serving bias, 416, 416, 417
atypical antipsychotics, 535
audition, 94
   see also hearing, sense of
auditory sensory memory, 205-6
authoritarian parenting style, 360-62
authoritative parenting style, 360-62
autistic disorder, 479
autonomic nervous system, 53-55
   emotions and, 309
availability heuristics, 249
aversive conditioning, 520-21
aversive stimuli, 180
avolition, 501
Axel, Richard, 98
axons, 42, 43
   action potential, 43-45, 45
axon terminals, 46

B
Bailey, J. Michael, 296
Bailey, Michael, 294
Baillargeon, Renée, 344
balance, sense of, 102
Balfour, Gay, 273
Ball, Tamera, 26
Bandura, Albert, 194, 194, 196, 303-4, 388, 388-90, 396
   compared to Freud on aggression, 390
barbiturates, 153-54
   sleep, 159
basal metabolic rate, 285-86, 286
basic anxiety, 380
basilar membrane, 95, 96